Mesopotamia Ancient Sumerian bas-relief portrait depicting the poetess Enheduanna Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own, sell, and inherit property.
Beeton gives extensively detailed instructions on how to supervise servants in preparation for hosting dinners and balls. The etiquette to be observed in sending and receiving formal invitations is given, as well as the etiquette to be observed at the events themselves.
The mistress of the house also had an important role in supervising the education of the youngest children.
Beeton makes it clear that a woman's place is in the home, and her domestic duties come first. Social activities as an individual were less important than household management and socialising as her husband's companion.
They were to be strictly limited: After luncheon, morning calls and visits may be made and received Visits of ceremony, or courtesy These visits should be short, a stay of from fifteen to twenty minutes being quite sufficient.
A lady paying a visit may remove her boa or neckerchief; but neither shawl nor bonnet In addition to Mrs. Shirley Forster Murphy a doctor and medical writer, wrote the influential Our Homes, and How to Make them Healthybefore he served as London's chief medical officer in the s.
Legal standards for minimum housing conditions were a new concept during the Victorian era, and a working-class wife was responsible for keeping her family as clean, warm, and dry as possible in housing stock that was often literally rotting around them.
In London, overcrowding was endemic in the slums inhabited by the working classes. See Life and Labour of the People in London. Families living in single rooms were not unusual. The poorer the neighbourhood, the higher the rents.
Rents in the Old Nichol area near Hackneyper cubic foot, were five to eleven times higher than rents in the fine streets and squares of the West End of London. The owners of the slum housing included peers, churchmen, and investment trusts for estates of long-deceased members of the upper classes.
Coal-dust from stoves and factories was the bane of the Victorian woman's housekeeping existence. Carried by wind and fog, it coated windows, clothing, furniture and rugs.
Washing clothing and linens would usually be done one day a week, scrubbed by hand in a large zinc or copper tub. Some water would be heated and added to the wash tub, and perhaps a handful of soda to soften the water.
Scrubbing the front wooden doorstep of the home every morning was also an important chore to maintain respectability. Canada Attorney General in Living the Legacy: The Women’s Rights Movement () “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the urbanagricultureinitiative.com, it’s the only thing that ever has.” That was Margaret Mead’s conclusion after a lifetime of observing very diverse cultures around the world.
The efforts of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and others in the 19th and early 20th century is considered by historians as the 'first wave' of the women's liberation movement.
The Role of the Wife and Mother. In the later nineteenth century things for women began to change. No doubt this had something to do with modernity and its intrinsic insistence on change, and no doubt it had something to do with the actions of women themselves, with their desire to break out of the limits imposed on their sex.
Daily life of Victorian women (ABC-CLIO, ). Murray, Janet Horowitz. Strong-minded women: and other lost voices from nineteenth-century England (). O'Gorman, Francis, ed. The Cambridge companion to Victorian culture () Perkin, Harold. The Origins of Modern English Society: – () online at Questia; Perkin, Joan.
Victorian Women in Victorian Society, Domestic Life and their daily ritauals as social represenatitives of their husbands. During the 19th century the Industrial Revolution transformed life in Britain and in other countries in Europe and North America.
By the end of the century life .