You can understand the importance of the internet in business by the inventions of Digital Marketing, Internet banking and eCommerce business models. The Internet is providing great benefits for business communication.
Intellectual property rights in Today's digital economy Photo credit: AFP The rapid growth of the digital economy, enabled by broadband penetration, and coupled with increases in computing power and storage, creates global markets for content and rights holders.
But it also creates a threat that — without adequate controls — piracy will damage the creative industries.
Creativity versus piracy Intellectual property rights provide the foundation upon which innovation is shared, creativity encouraged and consumer trust reinforced.
Estimates by Frontier Economics for the International Chambers of Commerce suggest that digital piracy accounted for about USD 75 billion inand project that it will reach USD billion by Music piracy is at the forefront of this activity, but peer-to-peer networks, coupled with higher broadband speeds, are increasingly being used to share television programmes and films.
Within 20 minutes of the broadcast of the final episode of Lost, a subtitled version in Portuguese reportedly appeared on a pirate website. Endemic copyright infringement facilitated by broadband infrastructure is increasingly drawing the telecommunications and Internet communities into the debate on intellectual property rights.
The film, music, publishing and television industries are putting pressure on Internet carriers and service providers to play a more active role in addressing both commercial copyright infringement and infringement by consumers.
Telecommunication regulators are increasingly being looked to as the authority to implement rules that protect copyright, while at the same time protecting consumer interests and encouraging investment and service innovation within the digital economy. Patents In the technology sector some companies have evolved business models that are entirely based on inventing new technologies, patenting the invention and then licensing the rights without ever manufacturing goods.
Qualcomm, which has a market capitalization of USD 96 billion, has a business model successfully founded on creating and licensing intellectual property rights. The protective power of patents can be abused.
In MayMicrosoft became a member of a crowdsourcing service designed to challenge and invalidate specious software patents and to avoid litigation costs. These occur where interrelated and overlapping patents result in a lack of clarity of who owns the patent and, as a consequence, where to go for the licence.
The technology sector has become increasingly litigious, which becomes a problem when it stifles innovation or acts as a barrier to new market entrants.
These policies have been designed to ensure that patents used in technology standards encourage patent holders to share their intellectual property, in the knowledge that their interests are protected.
Copyright — A closer look Illegal copying and distribution of copyright materials has had a hugely disruptive effect on a range of copyright industries, including music, film, television, publishing, games and software.
Digital technologies, the companies that exploit them, and the business models they facilitate are all potentially affected by copyright.
So too is the vast amount of user-generated content. Social networking sites and user-generated content Social networking sites are widely used for publishing and sharing user-generated content.
The opportunity for users to post copyrighted material — whether inadvertently or intentionally — is significant. For example, there are now million Facebook users, one billion tweets are sent per week via Twitter, more than 48 hours of video are uploaded every minute on YouTube, Flickr hosts more than 5 billion images, and in July the Apple App store announced that 15 billion applications had been downloaded since the opening of the store in Under pressure from the creative industries, Google implemented a number of policies in December to help dissuade people from searching for illegal copyright material.
This prevents the user from simply reposting the content under a different user name. YouTube operates a similar content identification system, which not only filters content, but also offers rights holders the opportunity to monetize their content.
Music Commercial music piracy generating income from unlicensed sales and private copying of music are responsible for much of the copyright infringement.
The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry estimated the number of files illegally shared at more than 40 billion ina piracy rate of about 95 per cent. Drawing on industry figures for retail pricing and the volume of illegal downloads, Frontier Economics has estimated the commercial value of all recorded music digital piracy at between USD 17 and 40 billion inrepresenting a commercial loss to the industry of between USD 3.
It also tempts pirates. In Julythe United States government shut down nine websites offering free access to films. The sites, some providing access to films just hours after their offi cial cinema release, had nearly 7 million subscribers each month and — like many illegal music sites — made money from advertising revenue and donations.
The Korean Film Council estimates that 50 per cent of households in the Republic of Korea have illegally downloaded films, representing a loss to the industry, particularly the DVD market, of perhaps USD 1 billion. In Asia and the Arab States, unauthorized rebroadcasting is a big problem.
They can now effectively transmit in real time, using unicast one-to-one or peer-to-peer transmission — they have the ability to compete directly with the rights holder.
For consumers, it can be difficult to differentiate between legitimate and illegal services.
Nokia Publishing The development of e-readers offers a new distribution channel for books and other published materials but opens up the possibility of widespread sharing of copyright material. The impact of piracy seems to be less severe than in other media.
Software The software industry suffers from both physical and digital piracy. The Business Software Alliance issued 7. In some countries, most of the software used is sourced illegally.
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Under-licensing where companies buy a limited user licence and then install the product on many personal computers or serverscounterfeiting and digital piracy are all challenges for the industry.
The games industry has developed business models that are resistant to piracy, for example through monthly subscriptions and value-added services for games.
Trademarks By opening up new marketing channels, the digital economy offers wider scope for both the legitimate and counterfeit use of trademarks. Closely related to trademark protection is the management of domain names.Article by: Gayle Cotton Special to EO.
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