His father was a master harness maker, and his mother was the daughter of a harness maker, though she was better educated than most women of her social class. Pietism was an evangelical Lutheran movement that emphasized conversion, reliance on divine grace, the experience of religious emotions, and personal devotion involving regular Bible study, prayer, and introspection.
Ethics[ edit ] Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative: Sittlichkeit Ethics also known as moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy which addresses questions of morality.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message In its descriptive sense, "morality" refers to personal or cultural valuescodes of conduct or social mores from a society that provides these codes of conduct in which it applies and is accepted by an individual.
It does not connote objective claims of right or wrong, but only refers to that which is considered right or wrong.
Descriptive ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense. Normative ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense.
Moral realism is the class of theories which hold that there are true moral statements that report objective moral facts. This may be the philosophical view propounded by ethical naturalistshowever not all moral realists accept that position e.
Instead, they hold that moral sentences are either categorically false claims of objective moral facts error theory ; claims about subjective attitudes rather than objective facts ethical subjectivism ; or else not attempts to describe the world at all but rather something else, like an expression of an emotion or the issuance of a command non-cognitivism.
Some forms of non-cognitivism and ethical subjectivism, while considered anti-realist in the robust sense used here, are considered realist in the sense synonymous with moral universalism.
For example, universal prescriptivism is a universalist form of non-cognitivism which claims that morality is derived from reasoning about implied imperatives, and divine command theory and ideal observer theory are universalist forms of ethical subjectivism which claim that morality is derived from the edicts of a god or the hypothetical decrees of a perfectly rational being, respectively.
Anthropology[ edit ] Tribal and territorial[ edit ] Celia Green made a distinction between tribal and territorial morality. Apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another.
By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual. Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, and the ascendancy of contract over status.
In-group and out-group[ edit ] Main article: Ingroups and outgroups Some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of moral rules to people depending on their membership of an " in-group " the individual and those they believe to be of the same group or an "out-group" people not entitled to be treated according to the same rules.
This belief has been confirmed by simple computational models of evolution. Jonathan Haidt has noted  that experimental observation indicating an in-group criterion provides one moral foundation substantially used by conservativesbut far less so by liberals.
Comparing cultures[ edit ] Peterson and Seligman  approach the anthropological view looking across cultures, geo-cultural areas and across millennia.
They conclude that certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures they examined. Each of these includes several divisions. For instance humanity includes lovekindnessand social intelligence.
Fons Trompenaarsauthor of Did the Pedestrian Die? One of these was whether the driver of a car would have his friend, a passenger riding in the car, lie in order to protect the driver from the consequences of driving too fast and hitting a pedestrian.
Trompenaars found that different cultures had quite different expectations, from none to definite.
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March Learn how and when to remove this template message John Newton, author of Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century  compared the Eastern and the Western cultures about morality. As stated in Complete Conduct Principles for the 21st Century, "One of the important objectives of this book is to blend harmoniously the fine souls regarding conduct in the Eastern and the Western cultures, to take the result as the source and then to create newer and better conduct principles to suit the human society of the new century, and to introduce a lot of Chinese fine conduct spirits to the Western world.
It is hoped that this helps solve lots of problems the human society of the 21st century faces, including but not limited to the Eastern and the Western cultures what a single culture cannot.
Some evolutionary biologistsparticularly sociobiologistsbelieve that morality is a product of evolutionary forces acting at an individual level and also at the group level through group selection although to what degree this actually occurs is a controversial topic in evolutionary theory.
Some sociobiologists contend that the set of behaviors that constitute morality evolved largely because they provided possible survival or reproductive benefits i.
Humans consequently evolved "pro-social" emotions, such as feelings of empathy or guilt, in response to these moral behaviors. On this understanding, moralities are sets of self-perpetuating and biologically-driven behaviors which encourage human cooperation.
Biologists contend that all social animals, from ants to elephants, have modified their behaviors, by restraining immediate selfishness in order to improve their evolutionary fitness. The phenomenon of reciprocity in nature is seen by evolutionary biologists as one way to begin to understand human morality.
Its function is typically to ensure a reliable supply of essential resources, especially for animals living in a habitat where food quantity or quality fluctuates unpredictably. For example, some vampire bats fail to feed on prey some nights while others manage to consume a surplus.
Bats that did eat will then regurgitate part of their blood meal to save a conspecific from starvation.
Since these animals live in close-knit groups over many years, an individual can count on other group members to return the favor on nights when it goes hungry Wilkinson, Marc Bekoff and Jessica Pierce have argued that morality is a suite of behavioral capacities likely shared by all mammals living in complex social groups e.
They define morality as "a suite of interrelated other-regarding behaviors that cultivate and regulate complex interactions within social groups. Christopher Boehm  has hypothesized that the incremental development of moral complexity throughout hominid evolution was due to the increasing need to avoid disputes and injuries in moving to open savanna and developing stone weapons.One of the major issues that has long been associated with moral philosophy has to do with the question of whether the basis for moral distinctions is to be found in the reason or in the sentiments and feelings experienced by human beings.
This is the first new scholarly edition this century of one of the greatest works in the history of philosophy, David Hume's Enquiry concerning Human urbanagricultureinitiative.com is the third volume of the Clarendon Hume Edition, which will be the definitive edition for the foreseeable future.
Footnotes. 1. In the lectures of and Berkeley was passed over by Hegel; in both courses Hume follows directly after the Scottish and French philosophers, and thus comes immediately before Kant; in the course of the French philosophy precedes the Scottish also.
Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.
Philosophy / Metaphysics of David Hume. Explaining philosopher David Hume's problem of causation, necessary connection and skepticism with the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM). David Hume quotes, 'Enquiries Concerning the Human Understanding and Principles of Morals', pictures, biography, life and writings.
According to Hume, During the modern period of philosophy, philosophers thought of necessary connection as a power or force connecting two events. When billiard ball A strikes billiard ball B, there is a power that the one event imparts to the other. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals.
By David Hume, Esq. ().