The Catholic Church was the sole athority power of day to day values, and before long, conflicting social and political issues began to shake the foundation of the corrupt Catholic Church. Ultimately, as westerners caught wind of the aforementioned doings, an attempt to reform the Catholic Church began brewing: This Reformation ultimately led to several significant social and political consequences.
Advanced Search Abstract Using novel microdata, we document an important, unintended consequence of the Protestant Reformation: To understand this process, we propose a conceptual framework in which the introduction of religious competition shifts political markets where religious authorities provide legitimacy to rulers in exchange for control over resources.
Consistent with our framework, religious competition changed the balance of power between secular and religious elites: This transfer of resources had significant consequences. First, it shifted the allocation of upper-tail human capital.
Graduates of Protestant universities increasingly took secular, especially administrative, occupations.
Protestant university students increasingly studied secular subjects, especially degrees that prepared students for public sector jobs, rather than church sector specific theology.
Second, it affected the sectoral composition of fixed investment. Particularly in Protestant regions, new construction shifted from religious toward secular purposes, especially the building of palaces and administrative buildings, which reflected the increased wealth and power of secular lords.
Reallocation was not driven by preexisting economic or cultural differences. Our findings indicate that the Reformation played an important causal role in the secularization of the West.
Introduction How does religious competition influence the allocation of resources between religious and secular uses? In this article, we study the paradigmatic case of the Protestant Reformation: We document how the introduction of religious competition during the Reformation transformed the European economy, sharply shifting the allocation of resources from religious to secular uses.
We argue that the interaction between religious competition and politics was critical to this process. We argue that the introduction of religious competition crucially affects a second market—in which state authorities secure political legitimacy from religious elites Rubin Introducing this missing market generates novel hypotheses.
First, competition should induce resource reallocation away from the church sector and toward secular uses. Second, competition should drive resource reallocation toward uses specifically favored by secular rulers. We examine rich microdata on the allocation of resources in early modern Germany and find evidence supporting both hypotheses.
We present a conceptual framework that captures a core feature of religion in history: Within our framework, the pre-Reformation era can be understood as an equilibrium in which a monopolist religious producer the Catholic Church provided political legitimacy to secular authorities at a high price—charged in the form of control over resources, tax exemptions, and some degree of political power.
Protestant reformers offered a popular, lower-cost alternative to the Catholic Church. Crucially, this shock to the market for salvation also affected the market for political legitimacy. Where Protestants were willing to grant secular authorities extensive control of church resources, the need to maintain doctrinal consistency restricted the bargains Catholics could offer.
The posited new equilibrium in the market for legitimacy has implications for the allocation of resources between secular and religious uses. Increased labor demand by enriched and empowered rulers, and the decline in clerical services required for salvation in Protestant theology, will reduce church sector labor demand relative to the secular sector.
As a consequence, returns to investments in human capital specific to church careers will fall, and forward-looking students will shift their human capital investments accordingly.
Shifts in resources toward secular authorities will also be reflected in fixed investments, such as large-scale urban construction, which embody a full set of factors of production. The new equilibrium will also have implications for the allocation of resources within the secular sector: We begin to evaluate these hypotheses by documenting the new equilibrium in the market for political legitimacy in the years afterwhen Martin Luther first circulated his famous 95 Theses.
As indicators of the shifting bargain between secular and religious authorities, we examine the expropriation of monasteries and wealth transfers from the Catholic Church to secular lords. Qualitative and quantitative evidence show sharp reallocations toward secular control of resources—not just a transfer from Catholic Church uses to Protestant ones.
Lollardy was a political and religious movement initially led by John Wycliffe. The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards was written by the Lollards, Wycliffe’s followers, in This document was presented to the Parliament of England and criticized the then-current state of the Church.
Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century. This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version. Within our framework, the pre-Reformation era can be understood as an equilibrium in which a monopolist religious producer (the Catholic Church) provided political legitimacy to secular authorities at a high price—charged in the form of control over resources, tax exemptions, and some degree of political power.
2 The Reformation represented a. Protestant Reformation - Words Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century.  Protestant Reformation - Words Reaction Paper- Protestant Reformation Protestant Reformation, first taking place in the early sixteenth century, brought about a whirlwind of change.
Although the Reformation was a religious movement, it also had a strong impact on all other aspects of life: marriage and family, education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy, and the arts.