Spanish give up search for Indian gold. Focus on defending their empire from English who were plundering treasure ships and Caribbean ports and French Protestants who began to settle in Florida though the Spanish had already claimed the land. Spanish establish fort at St.
Indian Religious Responses Rachel Knecht The past fifty years have seen a complete about-face in the way we discuss Native American history. By the late s and early s, however, as a result of changes in history departments in American universities, as well as political events such as the American Indian Movement and the U.
Among the vanguard of this pushback was Francis Jennings, with his Invasion of America. Jennings cast the story of colonial North America as one of conquest and invasion, and he includes Christian missions as part of the story of European domination over Native peoples.
For the next fifteen or twenty years, there was a sense among scholars of Native American history that, while this sympathetic approach was a more correct way of understanding the past, those historians who worked on it were considered a little strange. Since the mids, these two sides have integrated more successfully.
Nevertheless, the proper way to write Native American history is perennially controversial, and historians are always conscious of its pitfalls. These books do not, in any way, present a comprehensive overview of Native American history, but instead deal primarily with religious encounters.
The first major theme that appears throughout these books is that of conversion to Christianity. Almost all of them deal with it in one form or another, even if they do not thoroughly investigate it. Historiographical debates over how best to discuss conversion are ongoing, because the process, and even the meaning of the word, is so fraught.
The second key idea that emerges is that of lived religion and everyday practices, rather than doctrine. A focus on lived religion links historians talking about different places, times, cultures across the Americas.
Finally, the third and most recent trend is an emphasis on Native-written text. Historians of colonial America have tended, by necessity, to privilege sources written by European white settlers.
Nevertheless, recent historians, particularly those with a background in literary studies or in anthropology, have tried to bring Native-produced texts and materials to the fore as best they can. In addition, some of the books address the idea, which is good in theory although perhaps harder to execute, that cultural interaction is a two-way street.
Others reflect an increasing effort among historians not end their stories in the eighteenth century, but to address the nineteenth, twentieth, or even twenty-first, in a last chapter or epilogue. Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. Oxford University Press, Axtell argues that individual emotional or intellectual experiences were far more important.
American Indians and Christian Missions: Studies in Cultural Conflict. University of Chicago Press, He casts a broad scope, but still focuses on individual stories.
He addresses the different empires in the 17th century, and then runs through the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries in the United States. The Land Looks After Us: A History of Native American Religion. Martin lays out the cultural-religious pluralism of various, though far from all, Native groups in North America, and then incorporates the impact of Christianity in Chapter Three, transitioning to the colonial and then post-colonial periods.
In keeping with the new wave of Indian history, he takes Native Christians seriously, considering cases of both forced and voluntary conversion. University of North Carolina Press, Encounters of the Spirit:Essay on European and Native American Relations Words | 6 Pages Europeans made the voyage to a “new world” in order to achieve dreams of opportunity and riches.
Here we read accounts of specific negotiations between the French and Indians: (1) the peace treaty as reviewed by a French government official; (2) the announcement to the Iroquois of French plans to build Fort Niagara in , as described by a Franciscan missionary and explorer; and (3) advice on negotiating with the Karankawa of Tejas .
Either from self-preservation, civility or curiosity, various American Indian tribes assisted the early European colonies through the sharing of resources, by befriending them as allies and, ultimately, by accepting them as permanent neighbors.
English Indian Relations DBQ #2 The relations between Indians and the English were variable. On one side of the spectrum, the Wampanoag and Puritans got along very well, even having the “first Thanksgiving”. On the other end, the Pequot War waged the Pequots against three English colonies.
"Indian-European Relations" Question (Essay): Early encounters between American Indians and European colonists led to a variety of relationships among the different cultures.
Jean-Claude Juncker, president of the European Commission, and Donald Tusk, president of the European Council, met Modi in Brussels and presided over the 13th summit. The last EU-India summit took place in