Like a nuclear bomba chemical or biological weapon is a weapon of mass destruction. An effective attack using a chemical or biological agent can easily kill thousands of people. Chemical Weapons A chemical weapon is any weapon that uses a manufactured chemical to kill people.
Kautilya 's " Arthashastra ", a statecraft manual of the same era, contains hundreds of recipes for creating poison weapons, toxic smokes, and other chemical weapons.
Ancient Greek historians recount that Alexander the Great encountered poison arrows and fire incendiaries in India at the Indus basin in the 4th century BC. Arsenical smokes were known to the Chinese as far back as c. In the second century BC, writings of the Mohist sect in China describe the use of bellows to pump smoke from burning balls of toxic plants and vegetables into tunnels being dug by a besieging army.
Other Chinese writings dating around the same period contain hundreds of recipes for the production of poisonous or irritating smokes for use in war along with numerous accounts of their use.
These accounts describe an arsenic -containing "soul-hunting fog", and the use of finely divided lime dispersed into the air to suppress a peasant revolt in AD. Spartan forces besieging an Athenian city placed a lighted mixture of wood, pitch, and sulfur under the walls hoping that the noxious smoke would incapacitate the Athenians, so that they would not be able to resist the assault that followed.
Sparta was not alone in its use of unconventional tactics in ancient Greece; Solon of Athens is said to have used hellebore roots to poison the water in an aqueduct leading from the River Pleistos around BC during the siege of Kirrha.
Research carried out on the collapsed tunnels at Dura-Europos in Syria suggests that during the siege of the town in the third century AD, the Sassanians used bitumen and sulfur crystals to get it burning.
When ignited, the materials gave off dense clouds of choking sulfur dioxide gases which killed 19 Roman soldiers and a single Sassanian, purported to be the fire-tender, in a matter of two minutes. Having gained the wind of the French, he came down upon them with violence; and gassing a great quantity of quicklime, which he purposely carried on board, he so blinded them, that they were disabled from defending themselves.
Leonardo da Vinci proposed the use of a powder of sulfide, arsenic and verdigris in the 15th century: Chalk, fine sulfide of arsenic, and powdered verdegris may be thrown among enemy ships by means of small mangonelsand all those who, as they breathe, inhale the powder into their lungs will become asphyxiated.
It is unknown whether this powder was ever actually used. Even when fires were not started, the resulting smoke and fumes provided a considerable distraction. Although their primary function was never abandoned, a variety of fills for shells were developed to maximize the effects of the smoke.
Just three years later, August 27,the French and the Holy Roman Empire concluded the Strasbourg Agreementwhich included an article banning the use of "perfidious and odious" toxic devices.
The modern notion of chemical warfare emerged from the midth century, with the development of modern chemistry and associated industries.
The first proposal for the use of chemical warfare was made by Lyon PlayfairSecretary of the Science and Art Departmentin during the Crimean War.
He proposed a cacodyl cyanide artillery shell for use against enemy ships as way to solve the stalemate during the siege of Sevastopol. It was considered by the Prime Minister, Lord Palmerstonbut the British Ordnance Department rejected the proposal as "as bad a mode of warfare as poisoning the wells of the enemy.
It is considered a legitimate mode of warfare to fill shells with molten metal which scatters among the enemy, and produced the most frightful modes of death.Efforts to ban biological weapons. Using biological and chemical weapons was condemned by international declarations and treaties, notably by the Hague Convention (IV) respecting the laws and customs of war on land.
Efforts to strengthen this prohibition resulted in the conclusion, in , of the Geneva Protocol, which banned the use of. Like a nuclear bomb, a chemical or biological weapon is a weapon of mass destruction.
An effective attack using a chemical or biological agent can easily kill thousands of people. Modern chemical weapons tend to focus on agents with much greater killing .
Chemical weapons are classified as weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), though they are distinct from nuclear weapons, biological weapons, and radiological weapons.
All may be used in warfare and are known by the military acronym NBC (for nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare).Phosgene oxime: (CX). Biological warfare and chemical warfare overlap to an extent, as the use of toxins produced by some living organisms is considered under the provisions of both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention.
House resolution against first use of bio-chemical weapons is defeated. Kennedy Administration begins hike of chemical weapons spending from $75 million to more than $ million.
Bio & Chemical Weapons.
Biological and Chemical Weapons; Members of Scientists Working Group; Defense Spending. Pentagon Budget. the use of CWs continued. During the Iran-Iraq War, Iraq employed chemical weapons in battle, including an attack with mustard and nerve agents that killed thousands of residents of Halabja in what is now Iraqi.