Ascertaining the safety of water sources

It is important to know what type of well you have.

Ascertaining the safety of water sources

Environmental Effects A s with production and use of any fuels, aspects of biofuel production and use have benefits and adverse effects. This chapter discusses potential environmental effects from the production and use of algal biofuels, the potential influence of perceived or actual impacts on societal acceptance, and some of the health impacts potentially emanating from the specific environmental effects.

Potential environmental effects discussed in this chapter include those resulting from land-use changes, water quality, net greenhousegas GHG emissions, air quality, biodiversity, waste generation, and effects from genetically engineered algae with an emphasis on new or enhanced traits.

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Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. Environmental indicators of sustainability and data to be collected to assess sustainability are suggested.

In some environments and biofuel management systems, metrics for assessing environmental performance are easy to measure and adequate baseline data are available, but that is not the case in all systems.

A number of potential environmental concerns are evident, and if the concerns are not addressed they could become significant risks under large-scale deployment. As in any other industrial or agricultural enterprise, once they are recognized, such risks can be managed by standards or regulations so that industry is required to reduce effects to acceptable levels.

For the sake of comprehensiveness, a number of potential environmental risks are mentioned in this chapter, but some are less likely to occur than others.

Ascertaining the safety of water sources

Some of the environmental risks might require exploratory assessment and subsequent monitoring to ensure that they do not become sustainability concerns if algal biofuel production is scaled up. Water-quality concerns associated with commercial-scale production of algal biofuels, if sufficient culture waters are released to natural environments, include eutrophication of waters, contamination of groundwater, and salinization of water sources.

Potential water-quality benefits are reduced runoff of herbicides and insecticides compared to corn-grain ethanol or soybean-based biodiesel because of their reduced use, and reduced eutrophication if there are no releases of culture water or if algae are used as a means to remove nutrients from municipal waste, confined animal feeding operations, and other liquid wastes.

Water-quality effects will depend on the nutrient content of the algal culture medium; whether feedstock production systems are sealed, artificially lined, or clay lined; and the likelihood of extreme precipitation events.

Leakage of culture fluid to groundwater or surface water could occur if the integrity of the pond or trough system is compromised, if flooding occurs, or if spills occur during transfers of fluid during process stages or waste removal, but most of these events could be avoided with proper management.

The liquid effluent also can be recycled from anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted algae to produce biogas Davis et al. If harvest water is to be released instead of recycled, it or effluent from anaerobic digestion would contain nitrogen N and phosphorus Pthe concentrations of which depend on the nitrogen and phosphorus taken up by the harvested algal biomass Sturm and Lamer, Released waters could be more saline than receiving waters, particularly if water from saline aquifers is used for algae cultivation.

Such point-source discharge will be regulated by the Clean Water Act, and a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit would have to be obtained to operate the algae cultivation facilities EPA, a.

However, permit violation has been observed in some biofuel refineries Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Regulation and compliance assurance would address concerns about release of harvest water. The potential for accidental release of cultivation water exists; for example, clay or plastic liners could be breached through normal weathering or from extreme weather events, some of which are predictable.

High precipitation or winds could lead to overtopping of ponds or above-grade raceways. In those cases, the entire contents of algal cultures could be lost to surface runoff and leaching to surface water or groundwater.

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Siting in areas prone to tornadoes, hurricanes, or earthquakes would increase the likelihood of accidental releases. However, producers are likely to take preventive measures when extreme weather events are forecasted, and they would put effort into preventing accidental releases of cultivation water because such events could adversely affect their profit margin.13 Indicators of microbial water quality Nicholas J.

Ashbolt, Willie O.K. Grabow and Mario Snozzi Current guidelines in the three water-related areas (drinking water, wastewater and recreational water) assess quality, in microbiological terms, by measuring indicator organisms.

This chapter looks at the history and examines some of the. that in , some 1 million people were without safe water supplies. These appalling facts DRINKING WATER — SPECIFICATION (First Revision) 1 SCOPE The standard prescribes the requirements for of protected ground-water sources and rain-water catchment which are more likely to.

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California Department of Food and Agriculture Specialty Crop Block Grant Program Food Safety Page 2 of 3 their ability to impact norovirus survival in the water, on produce and transmission to a host. ing water sources (boreholes, springs, wells) and rainwater to access drinking water [5].

However these natural drinking water sources are at a high risk of contamination from many sources of contaminants like pit latrines, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, domestic and industrial wastes, leakages from landfills [6].

Sources of Water: Rainwater, oceans, rivers, lakes, streams, ponds and springs are natural sources of water. Dams, wells, tube wells, hand-pumps, canals, etc, are man-made sources of water.

Rain Water: Rain water collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water (Fig. ). Jun 29,  · This law sought to protect the nation’s public drinking water supply by giving EPA authority to set the standards for drinking water quality and oversee the states, localities, and water suppliers who implement those standards.

In and , the law was amended to protect drinking water and its sources, which include rivers, .

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