Assume that you are loved. Assume that those who love you find some kind of value in you and the things you do. Assume that if anyone actually is keeping a tally of all your failings, that act says more about them than it does about you.
Translate this page from English Print Page Change Text Size: The first step in this process is understanding the parts of thinking, or elements of reasoning. They are present in the mind whenever we reason. To take command of our thinking, we need to formulate both our purpose and the question at issue clearly.
We need to use information in our thinking that is both relevant to the question we are dealing with, and accurate. We need to make logical inferences based on sound assumptions.
We need to understand our own point of view and fully consider other relevant viewpoints.
We need to use concepts justifiably and follow out the implications of decisions we are considering. In this article we focus on two of the elements of reasoning: Learning to distinguish inferences from assumptions is an important intellectual skill.
Many confuse the two elements. Let us begin with a review of the basic meanings: If you come at me with a knife in your hand, I probably would infer that you mean to do me harm.
Inferences can be accurate or inaccurate, logical or illogical, justified or unjustified. An assumption is something we take for granted or presuppose.
Usually it is something we previously learned and do not question. It is part of our system of beliefs. We assume our beliefs to be true and use them to interpret the world about us.
If we believe that it is dangerous to walk late at night in big cities and we are staying in Chicago, we will infer that it is dangerous to go for a walk late at night. We take for granted our belief that it is dangerous to walk late at night in big cities.
If our belief is a sound one, our assumption is sound. If our belief is not sound, our assumption is not sound. Beliefs, and hence assumptions, can be unjustified or justified, depending upon whether we do or do not have good reasons for them. I got up to let the cat in.
We humans naturally and regularly use our beliefs as assumptions and make inferences based on those assumptions. We must do so to make sense of where we are, what we are about, and what is happening.
Assumptions and inferences permeate our lives precisely because we cannot act without them. We make judgments, form interpretations, and come to conclusions based on the beliefs we have formed.
If you put humans in any situation, they start to give it some meaning or other. People automatically make inferences to gain a basis for understanding and action. So quickly and automatically do we make inferences that we do not, without training, notice them as inferences. We see dark clouds and infer rain.Of course, all basic intuitions are not consistent, so mathematics is after a maximal consistent set of simplest expressible principles, much like any other empirical science.
We like our inventories of scientific facts to be parsimonious, elegant, compact and reducible. Because all human thinking is inferential in nature, command of thinking depends on command of the inferences embedded in it and thus of the assumptions that underlie it.
Consider the way in which we plan and think our way through everyday events. In any kind of work or study, we always bring a certain set of beliefs as well as philosophical assumptions. Qualitative researchers understand the importance of beliefs and theories that inform their work and also actively write about them in their research.
Technical analysis is a method of evaluating securities that involves a statistical analysis of market activity, such as price and volume.
13 chapter 1: The power of beliefs and assumptions urbanagricultureinitiative.com • Every school district is responsible for creating schools that ensure all students.
Because all human thinking is inferential in nature, command of thinking depends on command of the inferences embedded in it and thus of the assumptions that underlie it.
Consider the way in which we plan and think our way through everyday events.